Suffixes can change the Word-class and the meaning of the Word.

SUFFIXES

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SUFFIXES

Suffixes can change the Word-class and the meaning of the Word.

A – Common noun suffixes

-er /Ə/ is used for the person who does an activity, e.g. writer, worker, shopper, teacher.

You can use –er with a wide range of verbs to make them into nouns.

Sometimes, the /Ə/ suffix is written as –or instead of –er. It is worth making a special list of these as you meet them, e.g. actor, operator, sailor, supervisor.

-er / -or are also used for things which do a particular job, e.g. pencil-sharpener; bottle-opener; grater; projector

-er and –ee can contrast with each other meaning ‘person who does something.’ (-er) and ‘person who receives or experiences the action’ (-ee), e.g. employer / employee, sender / addressee, payee (e.g. of a cheque).

(t)ion /ò( Ə )n/ is used to make nouns from verbs. Complication – pollution – reduction – alteration – donation – admission

-ist [person] and ism [activity or ideology]: used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologies, and sometimes their profession (compare with –er/-or professions above), e.g. Marxism, Buddhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist.

-ist is also often used for people who play musical instruments, e.g. pianist, violinist, cellist.

-ness is used to make nouns from adjectives. Note what happens to adjectives that end in –y: goodness, readiness, forgetfulness, happiness, sadness, weakness.

Vocabulary

Pencil sharpener = apontador de lápis – goodness = bondade

Grater = ralador readiness = presteza, prontidão

Employer = empregador forgetfulness = esquecimento

Employee = empregado happiness = felicidade

Sender = remetente sadness = tristeza, melancolia

Addressee = destinatário weakness = fraqueza

Payee = pessoa a quem se paga dinheiro

Pollution = poluição,

Donation = doação

B – Adjectives suffix

-able/-ible /Əbl/ with verbs, means ‘can be done’

Drinkable – washable – readable – recognizable – countable – forgivable

Examples with: -ible: edible (can be eaten) – flexible (can be bent)

C – VERBS

-ise (or ize) makes verbs from adjectives, e.g., modernize, commercialise, industrialise.

Vocabulary

Drinkable = bebida aceitável, adjs. Potável, bebível

Washable = lavável

Readable = Adjetivo – legível, que se pode ler. De boa leitura

Legible = legível, claro, evidente

Recognizable = adj. Reconhecível, identificável

Countable = adj. Contável, calculável

Forgivable = adj. Perdoável

Edible /édibl/ = viveres, comestíveis, adj. comestível, comível

Flexible – /fl´eksƏ bl/ = adj. flexível, vergável

Modernize – /m´ͻdƏnɑiz/ = modernizar-se, atualizar-se

Commercialise (BrE) = comercializar – [commercialize (AmE)]

Industrialise (BrE)= industrializar – [industrialize (AmE)]

A – Common noun suffixes

-er /Ə/ is used for the person who does an activity, e.g. writer, worker, shopper, teacher.

You can use –er with a wide range of verbs to make them into nouns.

Sometimes, the /Ə/ suffix is written as –or instead of –er. It is worth making a special list of these as you meet them, e.g. actor, operator, sailor, supervisor.

-er / -or are also used for things which do a particular job, e.g. pencil-sharpener; bottle-opener; grater; projector

-er and –ee can contrast with each other meaning ‘person who does something.’ (-er) and ‘person who receives or experiences the action’ (-ee), e.g. employer / employee, sender / addressee, payee (e.g. of a cheque).

(t)ion /ò( Ə )n/ is used to make nouns from verbs. Complication – pollution – reduction – alteration – donation – admission

-ist [person] and ism [activity or ideology]: used for people’s politics, beliefs and ideologies, and sometimes their profession (compare with –er/-or professions above), e.g. Marxism, Buddhism, journalism, anarchist, physicist, terrorist.

-ist is also often used for people who play musical instruments, e.g. pianist, violinist, cellist.

-ness is used to make nouns from adjectives. Note what happens to adjectives that end in –y: goodness, readiness, forgetfulness, happiness, sadness, weakness.

Vocabulary

Pencil sharpener = apontador de lápis – goodness = bondade

Grater = ralador readiness = presteza, prontidão

Employer = empregador forgetfulness = esquecimento

Employee = empregado happiness = felicidade

Sender = remetente sadness = tristeza, melancolia

Addressee = destinatário weakness = fraqueza

Payee = pessoa a quem se paga dinheiro

Pollution = poluição,

Donation = doação

B – Adjectives suffix

-able/-ible /Əbl/ with verbs, means ‘can be done’

Drinkable – washable – readable – recognizable – countable – forgivable

Examples with: -ible: edible (can be eaten) – flexible (can be bent)

C – VERBS

-ise (or ize) makes verbs from adjectives, e.g., modernize, commercialise, industrialise.

Vocabulary

Drinkable = bebida aceitável, adjs. Potável, bebível

Washable = lavável

Readable = Adjetivo – legível, que se pode ler. De boa leitura

Legible = legível, claro, evidente

Recognizable = adj. Reconhecível, identificável

Countable = adj. Contável, calculável

Forgivable = adj. Perdoável

Edible /édibl/ = viveres, comestíveis, adj. comestível, comível

Flexible – /fl´eksƏ bl/ = adj. flexível, vergável

Modernize – /m´ͻdƏnɑiz/ = modernizar-se, atualizar-se

Commercialise (BrE) = comercializar – [commercialize (AmE)]

Industrialise (BrE)= industrializar – [industrialize (AmE)]

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