Os americanos consagraram um inglês – Winston Churchill – como o Homem do Século
Durante 65 anos, Winston Churchill esteve no epicentro das maiores crises mundiais, ora comandando o império britânico, ora derrotando o nazismo. Também homem de letras, recebeu o Prêmio Nobel de Literatura.
24 de janeiro de 1965
Churchill morre pacificamente em Londres, aos 90 anos. Este "Homem do Século" foi, para os povos do mundo ocidental, o herói da democracia e, sem sombra de dúvida, o homem que derrotou o fascismo.
Para milhões de ingleses, ele foi, durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, o símbolo de uma feroz resistência contra Hitler. Com a França derrotada, em 1940, e os Estados Unidos insistindo em se manter neutros, Churchill e o povo inglês estavam praticamente sós na luta contra Hitler.
Em 30 de maio de 1940, com 66 anos, Churchill torna-se primeiro-ministro inglês pela primeira vez, pronunciando um discurso de apenas uma linha: "Nada posso oferecer além de sangue, cansaço, lágrimas e suor". Mas, disse que Hitler seria derrotado.
Um homem velho, praticamente só, com uma única e terrível missão: enfrentar a formidável máquina de guerra que a Alemanha havia montado.
Em 1941, o Presidente Roosevelt garantiu a Churchill a total colaboração dos americanos. Em dezembro de 41, o ataque japonês a Pearl Harbor obrigou os americanos a entrarem na guerra. Churchill foi o arquiteto da aliança vitoriosa entre a Grã-Bretanha, os Estados Unidos e a União Soviética. Para derrotar Hitler, todos os aliados são bem-vindos, mesmo os bolcheviques. O otimismo de Churchill e sua espantosa energia animaram e serviram de inspiração aos ingleses. Mas, à medida em que mais próxima parecia a derrota de Hitler, outra sombra parecia erguer-se sobre a Europa. Churchill, ao contrário de Roosevelt, nunca confiou em Stalin. Na opinião de Churchill, a Conferência de Yalta, em 4 de fevereiro de 1945, foi um fracasso total. Stalin não pretendia restabelecer a democracia nos territórios libertados pelo Exército Vermelho. Em 7 de maio de 1945, os alemães assinavam sua rendição incondicional.
Depois de anunciar a vitória dos Aliados, Churchill foi a Potsdam, na Alemanha, em julho de 1945, para uma conferência com Truman – então presidente dos Estados Unidos – e Stalin. Foi lá que soube de sua derrota eleitoral. Abandonando o herói dos tempos difíceis, o povo inglês havia preferido entregar aos trabalhistas a enorme tarefa da reconstrução nacional. Churchill aceitou o veredito, declarando que esta era a lei da democracia que ele havia defendido durante seis longos anos.
Fiel ao seu destino, tornou-se líder da oposição e foi coerente sempre. Foi o primeiro a perceber que uma cortina de ferro começava a separar a Europa em dois mundos. Reeleito primeiro-ministro em 1951, renunciou ao cargo quatro anos mais tarde, mas conservou o lugar que tinha na Câmara dos Comuns, até completar 90 anos.
Churchill, Sir Winston (Leonard Spencer) 1874-1965
Statesman, historian, and biographer, whose five years of war leadership (1940-45) secured him a central place in modern British history. Churchill is widely considered the greatest political figure in 20th-century Britain. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953. In was an open secret that he would have preferred the Nobel Peace Prize. Churchill’s career was anything but predictable: he supported the Zionist movement in Palestine (1921-22), during the Abdication crisis (1926) he was loyal to Edward VIII, and during the 1945 election campaign he tried to brand Labour as a totalitarian party.
‘Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, the whole world, including the Unites States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age, made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will say, "This was their finest hour."’ (Churchill in his speech on June 18, 1940)
Winston Churchill was the son of conservative politician Lord Randolph Churchill and his American wife, Jennie Jerome, and a direct descendant from the first Duke of Marlborough (1650-1722). Lady Randolph’s second son, Jack, was born in 1880, and rumors circulated that he had a different father from Winston Churchill. "George Moore, the Anglo-Irish novelist, said she had 200 lovers, but apart from anything else the number is suspiciously round," Roy Jenkins wrote in his biography on Churchill. "I loved her dearly — but at a distance," Churchill later said of his mother in MY EARLY LIFE (1930). In school Churchill was at the bottom of his class. Nothing showed that he would became "the largest human being of our time" (Isaiah Berlin). Physically he was not a big man — at 5-foot-8 he was shorter than Harry Truman. Churchill attended Harrow and Sandhurst, from which he graduated twentieth in a class of 130. Shortly after his father’s death in 1895, he was commissioned in the Fourth Hussars. He soon obtained a leave, and worked during the Cuban war as a reporter for the London Daily Graphic.
"It is better to be making the news than taking it; to be an actor rather than a critic." (from The Malakand Field Force)
From 1896 to 1897 Churchill served as a soldier and journalist in India, and wrote the basis for THE STORY OF THE MALAKAND FIELD FORCE (1898). "Writing is an adventure," Churchill once said. "To begin with, it is a toy and amusement. Then it becomes a mistress, then it becomes a master, then it becomes a tyrant. The last phase it that just as you are about to be reconciled to your servitude, you kill the monster and fling him to the public."
In 1898 Churchill fought at the battle of Omdurman in Sudan, depicting his experiences in THE RIVER WAR, AN ACCOUNT OF THE RECONQUEST OF THE SUDAN (1899). Churchill’s several books dealing with his early career include MY AFRICAN JOURNEY (1908) and MY EARLY LIFE (1930). Churchill resigned his commission in 1899, and was assigned to cover the Boer War for the London Morning Post. His adventures, capture by the Boers, and a daring escape, made Churchill celebrity and hero on his return to England in 1900.
In 1900 Churchill was first elected to Parliament. He switched from conservatives to Liberal Party in 1904. In 1908 he married Clementine Ogilvy Hozier, with whom he had one son and three daughters. This relationship brought much happiness and security throughout Churchill’s lifetime. Between 1906 and 1911 Churchill served in various governmental posts, and was appointed lord of the admiralty in 1911. As home secretary (1910-11) he used troops against strikers in South Wales.
After the outbreak of First World War he supported the Dardannelles Campaign, an operation against the Turks. He had encouraged the development of such materiel as tank, and was generally credited with the British Fleet’s preparedness in August 1914. But abortive expeditions to Antwerp and Gallipoli and the failed action at the Dardanelles did great harm to Churchill reputation and career. Reduced in 1915 to minor office as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, he resigned. Churchill rejoined the Army, and rose to the rank of colonel. In 1917 he was appointed Lloyd George’s minister of munition, subsequently becoming the state secretary for war and air (1918-21), and colonial secretary (1921-22). During the postwar years he was active in support of the Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) in Russia.
At the election of 1922 Churchill was defeated as an Anti-Socialist. A rabid anti-Bolshevik, he further alienated critics by a third abortive military expedition — to help the White Russians on the Murman Coast. He left Parliament in 1922, and returned to the House as a Conservative. From this period he is remembered for his role as chancellor of the exchequer (1924-29) for the part he played in defeating the General strike of 1926 as an opponent of organized labour when the latter came into direct conflict with the principle of public order and government. In 1923 Lord Alfred Douglas accused Churchill of having arranged the wartime death of Lord Kitchener. Douglas’s source was a bogus captain who had been certified as a lunatic. Much later he addressed a sonnet to Winston Churchill. False news annoyed Churchill but also BBC – he saw it as a rival to his own British Gazette, edited from his official address at Downing Street.
Out of office, Churchill began writing THE WORLD CRISIS, which appeared in 6 volumes (1923-31). The work was attacked by the eminent poet and critic Herbert Read in English Prose Style (1928). He described Churchill prose as being high-sounding, redundant, falsely eloquent and declamatory, sharing his view with the younger post-war generation of writers who praised the virtues of simplicity. In 1924 Churchill was elected to Parliament, and appointed chancellor of the Exchequer. Churchill’s defense of the gold was criticized by the economist John Maynard Keynes, who foresaw that such policy would drop coal prices significantly. It lead to conditions which eventually provoked the general strike of 1926. Later, during World War II, Keynes was one of Churchill’s economic advisers.
After Conservative defeat in 1929, Churchill was again out of office. His absence from government lasted a decade. During this time he wrote a four-volume biography of his ancestor, MARLBOROUGH: HIS LIFE AND TIMES (1933-1938).
"I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma." (from a radio broadcast, October 1, 1939)
With the outbreak of World War II Churchill was appointed first lord of the Admiralty. On May 10, 1940, he became Prime Minister, and established close ties with U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. From July 1940, he held a number of his cabinet meetings in the war rooms deep under Whitehall, occasionally sleeping there. However, it was not until 1943 when a direct telephone link was established in the bunker connecting it to the White House. Churchill’s radio speeches from Room 60 strenghtened the nation’s determination to win the war. "We shall not flag nor fail. We shall go on to the end. . . . We shall fight on the beaches . . . we shall fight in the fields and in the streets . . . we shall never surrender." In 2001, some sixty years later, President George W. Bush used an adaptation of these words in his speeches after a terrorist attack against World Trade Center on September 11. In November 1943 Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met in Teheran and at the meeting Churchill presented Stalin with a sword of honor for the people of Stalingrad. The Yalta meeting with Roosevelt and Stalin resulted in the dissection of Europe into opposing political jurisdictions. His strategic misjudgment was blamed for the wartime success of Germany in Africa, Norway, and the Aegean. He had difficulties to tolerate Charles de Gaulle, and he told to a friend: "Of all the crosses I have to bear, the heaviest is the Cross of Lorraine." During the war Churchill was relatively healthy but in 1943 and 1944 he suffered pneumonia; also his long, official meals with Stalin, which could take four-five hours, gave him stomach pains. On 8 May Churchill announced the unconditional surrender of Germany. His Conservative party was defeated by the Labour party in the 1945 election, but he continued as Opposition leader in the House of Commons: against Indian independence, and in favor of the United Nations, a unified Europe, and manufacture of the hydrogen bomb.
During the war Churchill also had time to support the idea of C.K. Ogden for an international language, Basic English. "Basic English is a carefully wrought plan for transactions of practical business and interchange of ideas, a medium of understanding to many races and an aid to the building of a new structure for preserving peace." (Churchill at Harvard, 1943) Churchill emerged from WW II as a national hero, but was out of the office for several years. However, he led the Conservative opposition, and remained active as a political thinker. A sign of the beginning of the Cold War was Churchill’s famous ‘Iron Curtain’ speech in Fulton, Missouri, in spring 1946.
Churchill’s history THE SECOND WORLD WAR appeared in six volumes (1948-54). Churchill had once predicted that history would treat him kindly because he himself would write it. The work was received with mixed critics, praised for its grandeur, but Volume 2 (the period through 1941) was considered poorly arranged, and Volume 5 (through 1944) seemed to most critics a falling-off from earlier volumes.
"The quality of Churchill’s volumes on the Second World War is that of his whole life. His world in built upon the primacy of public over private relationships, upon the supreme value of action, of the battle between simple good and simple evil, between life and death; but, above all, battle." (Isaiah Berlin in The Proper Study of Mankind, 1998)
In 1951 Churchill became prime minister, and was knighted in 1953. Next year he was acclaimed by the Queen and Parliament as ‘the greatest living Briton’. Churchill’s efforts to bring an end to the first phase of the Cold War by a summit conference between himself, Eisenhower and Stalin (1952-55) turned out to be fruitless. He resigned from the prime minister’s office in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden. He had suffered a paralytic stroke a few year before, and Lord Moran, his physician, gave him some stimulant, perhaps amphetamine. It is possible that Churchill took drugs, "Dr. Moran’s green pills", before important political meetings. His diet was not healthy — he was overweight, did not take any unnecessary steps in his old days, and his servants helped him to dress and undress. After his retirement he published the monumental A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE (1956-58), which mostly dealt with politics and war. At Westerham, Kent, Churchill concentrated in painting, masonry, and horse racing. He frequently dictated letters to his secretaries half-dressed and often roamed around his rooms at Chartwell nude when he awoke. During this last period of his life, when he was not in the center of political power, he also suffered from depression.
"I am ready to meet my Maker," Churchill said on his 75th birthday. "Whether my Maker is prepared for the ordeal of meeting me is another matter." Churchill died on January 24, 1965, after suffering cerebral thrombosis. Later historians have been critical of Churchill’s actions and relationships with world leaders, and the opening of British government files in the 1980s have brought new material into daylight. The conviction that Churchill was among the most important men in modern history have remained unchanged.
For further reading: Winston Churchill as I Knew Him by V. Bonham-Carter (1965); Winston Spencer Churchill by R.S. Churchill and M. Gilbert (1966-, 5 vol. biography and companion volumes); Churchill by M. Gilbert (1967); Winston Churchill by M.Pelling (1974); Churchill: A Photographic Portrait by Martin Gilbert (1988); The Last Lion by William Manchester (1983-84); Winston Churchill: A Reference Guide by E. Steinbaugh (1985); Winston S. Churchill by Martin Gilbert (1973-88); Churchill: The End of Glory: A Political Biography by John Charmley (1993); Churchill and Roosevelt at War by Keith Sainsbury (1994); Churchill: The Unruly Giant by Norman Rose (1995); In Search of Churchill: A Historian’s Journey by Martin Gilbert (1995); Churchill and Hitler: In Victory and Defeat by John Strawson (1998); Churchill and the Soviet Union by David Carlton (2000); Churchill Wanted Dead or Alive by Celia Sandys (2000); Churchill: A Biography by Roy Jenkins (2001) – Phrases and slogans made well-known by Churchill: "I have nothing to offer but blood, tears, and sweat" (May 13, 1940) – "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few." (August 20, 1940) – "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent". (Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, U.S., on March 5, 1946). – About the Nobel Prize for Literature: "He got the Nobel Prize for those passionate utterances which were the very stuff of human courage and defiance." Remark of William Golding from Nobel Prize Winners, ed. by Tyler Wasson (1987). – Painting, fiction: Churchill was also talented amateur painter. Among his publications is beautifully written introduction to the art of painting: PAINTING AS A PASTIME, 1948. His only work of fiction was SAVROLA, A TALE OF THE REVOLUTION IN LAURANIA, which appeared in 1900. – Suom.: Churchillilta on suomennettu myös puhekokoelma Sotakronikka.
- THE STORY OF MALAKAND FIELD FORCE, 1898
- THE RIVR WAR, 1899
- SAVROLA, A TALE OF THE REVOLUTION IN LAURANIA, 1900 – Kansa nousee (suom. Toivo Vallenius, 1916)
- LONDON TO LADYSMITH VIA PRETORIA, 1900
- IN HAMILTON’S MARCH, 1900
- MR. BRODRICK’S ARMY, 1903
- LORD RANDOLPH CHURCHILL, 1906
- MY AFRICAN JOURNEY, 1908
- LIBERALISM AND THE SOCIAL PROBLEM, 1909
- THE PEOPLE’S RIGHTS, 1909
- IRISH HOME RULE, 1912
- THE WORLD CRISIS 1911-1918, 1923-31 (6 vols.)
- THE WORLD CRISIS: THE AFTERMATH (Volume 5), 1929 – Maailmansodan jälkisato (suom. Uuno Kahma, 1916)
- MY EARLY LIFE, 1930 – Nuoruuteni (suom. Erkki Arni, 1954)
- INDIA, 1931
- THE UNKNOWN WAR, 1931
- AMID THESE STORMS, 1932
- THE GREAT WAR, 1933-34 (3 vols.)
- GREAT CONTEMPORARIES, 1937
- WHILE ENGLAND SLEPT, 1938
- MARLBOROUGH: HIS LIFE AND TIMES, 1933-38
- STEP BY STEP, 1939
- BRITAIN’S STRENGHT, 1940
- BLOOD, SWEAT, AND TEARS, 1941
- ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 1941
- THE UNRELENTING STRUGGLE, 1942
- THE END OF THE BEGINNING, 1943
- ONWARDS TO VICTORY, 1944
- FOREIGN POLICY, 1944
- THE DAWN OF LIBERATION, 1945
- INTO BATTLE, 1945
- SECRET SESSION SPEECHES, 1946
- VICTORY, 1946
- PAINTING AS PASTIME, 1948 – Maalaus ajanvietteenä (suom. Leena-Kaisa Laitakari, 1950)
- THE SINEWS OF PEACE, 1948
- THE SECOND WORLD WAR, 1948-53 (6 vols.)
- EUROPE UNITE, 1950
- INTO THE BALANCE, 1951
- STEMMING THE TIDE, 1953
- A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLES, 1956-58 (4 vols.)
- THE UNWRITTEN ALLIANCE, 1961
- HEROES OF HISTORY, 1968
- THE ROAR OF THE LION, 1969
- YOUNG WINSTON’S WARS, 1972
- THE COLLECTED WORKS OF SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL, 1973-74 (34 vols.)
- IF I LIVED MY LIFE AGAIN, 1974
- WINSTON SPENCER CHURCHILL: HIS COMPLETE SPEECHES, 1987-1963 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 1987-1963 end_of_the_skype_highlighting (1974 (8 vols.)
- THE COLLECTED ESSAYS OF SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL, 1976 (4 vols.)
- CHURCHILL AND ROSEVELT, 1984 (3 vols., with Franklin D. Roosevelt)
- THE CHURCHILL-EISENHOWER CORRESPONDENCE, 1953-1955, 1990
- THE CHURCHILL WAR PAPERS: AT THE ADMIRALTY: SEPTEMBER 1939-MAY 1940, 1993